The history of Afghanistan presents an interesting tale of events which reshaped the country's identity. Though the country has been inflicted with war, battles and political instability which have ripped the country apart, yet the land of Afghanistan has come a long way and established itself as one of the most politically formidable countries of the world.
Old historical evidences indicate that in 500 B.C, Persian king Darius I occupied the land, Later, Alexander the Great ruled over the then Afghanistan from 329-327 B.C but after his death the land became a part of the Seleucid Empire and subsequently was a part of Maurya dynasty in the following years. During this phase, lots of rebellious activities have been witnessed from differing sections of the society especially the tribal groups. YŁechi, founder of the Kushan dynasty introduced Buddhism and continued to reign over the land for a considerable period of time. The declination of the Kushan dynasty, led to the emergence of smaller dynasties like Sassanids, and the Turkish Tu-Kuie. However, Mahmud of Ghazna, extended his empire from Khorasan in Iran to the Punjab in India and was invariably regarded as the greatest rulers of Afghanistan. Jenghiz Khan and Timur were the late conquerors followed by Babur, who established the Mughal Empire. In 18th century, Nadir Shah took over the charges and after his death Ahmad Shah, an Afghan tribal leader united the whole of Afghanistan. He was regarded to be the founder of the very famous Durrani dynasty.
After the end of Durrani dynasty in 1818, the British Empire annexed part of the land and slowly took administrative charges of the country. The first Afghan War was fought between the British and the Afghans from 1838 to1842. Dost Muhammad, the Emir of Afghanistan was deposed but later an agreement was signed between the British and the Emir. After his death in the year 1863 his third son, Sher Ali took over the reigns of the dynasty. His constant conflict with the British led to the second Afghan War in 1878. Yakub Khan was declared the next successor after Sher Ali followed by Abd ar-Rahman Khan who was recognized as the next in the year 1880. In the following years, border disputes with Russia increased and lately an agreement was signed in 1885 and 1895 and the Durand Agreement in 1893. It was only towards the end of 1907 that the independence of Afghanistan was guaranteed. The third Afghan War resulted ended in the 'Treaty of Rawalpindi', which gave Afghanistan independent charges over its foreign relations. After the partition of India the Pathans of Afghanistan demanded the creation of Pushtunistan. King Muhammad Zahir Shah continued to rule over the country for a long time. The Soviet attacks in 1979 left the country devastated to a great extend. The following years the country witnessed created political turmoil's and economic instability.
From 1998 Taliban gained control over the country and continued warfare which resulted in foreign intervention by U.S.A. This phase of warfare still continues in a smaller proportion thereby affecting the social and political instability of the country. In 2004, Hamid Karzai was elected as the President of the country through democratic elections. Its under the able leadership of Karzai that Afghanistan is slowly proceeding towards a developing nation of the world from strength to strength in spite of the ongoing international war conflict which has torn the country apart.
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