Pre-history and the Classical Period---
The surrounding land of Algeria was known as Magreb, and the early inhabitants of the central Maghreb survived mainly on different kinds of hominid occupation dating back to 200,000 B.C, especially found near Sa´da. Neolithic civilization which was developed in parts of the Sahara and Mediterranean region, between 6000 and 2000 B.C, attained great success in the relevant years. Also towards the ends of 5th century BC, the indigenous tribes of northern part of Africa were came to be invaded by different invaders, however, the most prominent among them were ---Phoenician, Roman, Vandal, Byzantine, Arab, Turkish, and French. Phoenician merchants arrived on the coastal regions of North Africa at around 900 B.C. and established a new land which was known as Carthage at 800 B.C. During the classical period, Berber civilization grew at a faster rate and subsequently its impact was felt on agriculture, manufacturing, trade and even political organization was decentralized to a great extend. Further more, trade links between the inhabitants of Carthage and the Berbers who also tremendously focused on territorial expansion of the two countries. The Islamic invasion by the Arab rulers, truly transformed the social and ethnic identity of the land, thereby creating a new revolution. The religion and language also introduced changes in social and economic relations, thereby establishing links with the other powerful nations of the world. It's interesting to note that for nearly 300 years, Algeria under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Never before in the political history of Algeria, there was such a phase of growth in spheres of trade and business. Turkish was accepted as the official language, by then. Although Algeria continued to be a part of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman government in the later half started to lose its hold over the land.
French Invasion and the Fight for Independence---
The French conquest in 1830 was met with great resistance from different sections of the society. Subsequently with the establishment of French rule in Algeria, the French made it an integral part of their rule and thus, thousands of settlers from France, Italy, Spain, and Malta moved in to the Algerian coastal plain and settled there permanently. In the year August 1947, the French National Assembly approved establishment of Organic Statute of Algeria, which drafted the proposal for creation of an Algerian Assembly. The Algerian War of Independence continued for a long period beginning from1954 to1962. Finally after years of struggle and bloodshed, France declared Algeria an independent nation on July 3.
Thus, an overview of the history of Algeria presents us with varied interesting details.
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