Geography of Brazil

Brazil is by comparison slightly smaller in land mass than the United States, covering a total territory of 8,514,876.599 sq km between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean and it is the eastern most country of the Americas. The geography of Brazil contains forests, mountains and hills, some great rivers and many coastlines. Together with all these physical features the geography of Brazil makes a splendid picture.


Brazil is located in the Eastern part of South America bordering the Atlantic Ocean. The Brazilian geography is surrounded by Guyana, Venezuela, Suriname and the department of French Guiana to the north, Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest, Uruguay to the south, Colombia to the northwest and Bolivia and Peru to the west. Geographically Brazil coordinates 10 00 S, 55 00 W.

Land Boundaries-

Brazil borders a total of 16,885 km shared between Colombia 1,644 km, French Guiana 730.4 km, Bolivia 3,423 km, Peru 2,995 km, Suriname 593 km, Argentina 1,261 km, Guyana 1,606 km, Paraguay 1,365 km, Uruguay 1,068 km and Venezuela 2,200 km. the total coastline covered by Brazil is 7,491 km.


Total area covered: 8,511,965 sq km
  • Land: 8,456,510 sq km
  • Water: 55,455 sq km

Land Topography-

The geography of Brazil is composed of mostly flat lowlands in north, some hills, mountains, plains and narrow coastal belt. The north of the country is characterized by the extensive low-lying Amazon Rainforests to the south lies open terrain of hills and low mountains which is home to most of the Brazilian population and its agricultural base. The mountain ranges along the Atlantic coast reach up to a height of roughly 2,900 meters. Pico da Neblina or the Misty Peak in Guiana's highlands is the highest peak with 3,014 meters. The land of some important rivers like the Amazon which is the largest river in the world in flowing water volume and also the second-longest in the world, the Iguaçu River, where the Iguaçu Falls are located, the Paraná and its major tributary, the Negro, Xingu, Madeira, São Francisco and the Tapajos rivers. The rainforests covered by the Amazon Basin constitutes almost half of the rainforests on Earth.

Land Usage-

The natural resources of Brazil includes gold, iron ore, phosphates, tin, uranium, platinum, bauxite, manganese, nickel, petroleum, hydropower and timber.

  • Arable land: 6.93%
  • Permanent crops: 0.89%
  • Other: 92.18%


Brazil is traversed by the Equator and Tropic of Capricorn and thus the Tropical climate dominates and in the south of the country, subtropical climate prevails. Occasionally frost and snow is experienced in the higher regions. Though precipitation is abundant in the humid Amazon Basin, in the northeast is found arid landscapes. In spite of 90% of the country coming under the tropical zone, the Brazil's climate varies considerably from the mostly tropical North to temperate zones below the Tropic of Capricorn. Basically Brazil can be said to have five climatic regions, the equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, and subtropical. The average temperatures along the equator are high with 25°C unlike that of the summer temperatures in the temperate zones which goes up to a 40°C. In the regions south of the Tropic of Capricorn there forms frost during the winter months of June to August and in some years there is snow in the mountainous areas, such as Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina.

Natural Hazards-

Repeating droughts in the north-east, floods and occasional frost in south are some of the natural hazards of the Brazil's geography and climate.


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