Geography of Canada


Physical Features

The geography of Canada is distinguished for its size, being the second largest country in the world after Russia which is the largest. Covering a total area of 3.9 million square miles, Canada occupies most of the northern half of the North American continent. The country encompasses a total land area of 9,093,507 square kilometers and 891,163 square kilometers of fresh water, with a coastline covering 202,080 km. The geography of Canada is characterized by its diversity, hence every region has a different climate and varied landscape features.

Population and Places

In comparison to its geographic size, Canada has a rather sparse population of 28 million people with the east-central part of the country being the most populated area. The country has 10 provinces and 2 territories with Ottawa as its capital city. The major cities of Canada are Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Toronto, Halifax and Winnipeg.

Most parts of Canada are still in wilderness covered by forests and lakes and hence make for an ideal spot for fishing and hunting. The west- central parts of the country mostly consists of prairie land with large grain farms.

Climatic Conditions

Owing to the vast geographic size of Canada, the climate varies throughout the country, ranging from temperate in the south to sub arctic and arctic in the southeast. Generally, Canada is known for its cold winters and short warm summers. The northern most regions of Canada experiences harsh climatic conditions and therefore most of the country's population is concentrated within a few 100 km of the southern border with a milder climate.

Natural Hazards

in Canada include continuous permafrost and cyclonic storms.

Natural Resources and Wildlife

Canada is a country with an abundance of natural resources which includes zinc, copper, gold, lead, iron ore, nickel, silver, diamonds, molybdenum, potash, coal, petroleum, timber, natural gas, hydro power and fish. The natural resources contribute greatly to the country's economy.

Canada's vast wilderness offers habitat to a variety of wildlife which includes bears, beavers, moose, lynx and cougars among other animals. Several bird species in Canada consist of Canada geese, great blue heron and the bald eagles. Sea life includes whales, dolphins, salmon and sharks among several other species of fish.

This article provides an overview of Canada's geography. For more information on Canada, flip through the pages of


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