Geography of Colombia

The geography of Colombia comprises of various landscapes which contributes to its geographical identity. The country of Colombia is located at a geographical latitude of 8º 14 ' 15 N and longitude of 73º 2 ' 26 W.

Bordering Countries of Colombia

On to the east of Colombia lies Venezuela and Brazil; southern part is bordered by Ecuador and Peru; while Northern part of Colombia lays the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; and to the western part is Panama and the Pacific Ocean. The total surface area covered by Colombia is 1,138,910 sq km, of which 1,038,700 sq km covers the land and water covers around 100,210 sq km. Colombia is the only country with vast coastlines on both sides as the North Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

Geographical Divisions of Colombia

Based on its vast geographical areas, the physical features have been classified into three regions. Each of these divisions has a distinctive feature of their own. So here's with you a brief description of the physical divisions as---

1. Carribean Lowlands

From Golfo de Urabá to parts of Venezuelan border situated at the northern part of the Cordillera Oriental forms the Carribean Lowland. The southern part comprising of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, a mountain range with numerous peaks covering a height of 5,700 meters forms a special feature of this region. Due to the presence of fertile land, it's a hub of various trade and business activities of the country.

2. Pacific Lowlands

Classified as the region of jungle and rain forests and invested with great natural resources. To the east of the Pacific lowlands are Cordillera Occidental, which is the source of innumerable streams and waterfalls. Majority of the streams in this region flow westward, however Río Atrato flows north bound, paving way for growth of ports which lies near the Atlantic Ocean. To the western part of Río Atrato rises the Serranía de Baudó, which actually comprises of low mountain ranges and occupies a formidable part of the Pacific Lowland region.

3. Eastern Colombia

The Andes region covers an area of 699,300 square kilometers with little population. The unique diversity of the flora and fauna of this region has attracted nature lovers from different corners of the world. It is also home to some of the biggest rivers of Colombia.

Natural Resources of Colombia

Only 2% of the land in Colombia is fertile. Major food crops are coffee, sugarcane, oilseed and corn. Like other South American countries, Colombia has a good repository of minerals as well as petroleum, natural gas, coal and nickel. In the recent times, due to the presence of many rivers, it has become the source for power generation. Major industries of Colombia include--- textiles, beverages, chemicals, cement etc.

Thus, the geography of Colombia presents a clear overview of the great physical aspects of the country.


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