The great land of Colombia has witnessed major historical events since the ancient times which have reshaped the historical background of the country and given it a distinct identity of its own. The history of Colombia presents the varied aspects of the country faced during different times.
Statistics indicate that in 1500, Spanish invaders first established their colony along the northern coastal areas of Colombia. Before the advent of the Spanish regime, the land of Colombia was inhabited by various indigenous tribes of Caribbean, Chibcha and Andean origin. In 1549, New Granada was assigned as the capital city comprising of large areas, which is now the present day Colombia. During the reign of Spanish rulers, there was a wide protest from different corners of the region and attempts were made to thwart off them, however this political unrest led to a rebellion under the guidance of Simon Bolivar, which can in fact be termed as Colombia's struggle for independence. This revolution lasted for nine years. Finally, the republic of Colombia was established in the year 1855.Prior to the establishment of the republic of Colombia, there were religious conflicts and assertion of dominant power by the Catholic Church authorities led to unrest and political upheaval.
After the establishment of the republic of Colombia, Simon Bolivar was elected as the first President of then Greater Colombia and Francisco de Paula Santander as its Vice-President. The constitutional assembly which was framed in 1828 by Simon Bolivar suffered a setback as in 1830 Venezuela and Ecuador became independent nations. A new constitution was created in 1858 with a confederation of nine states named as Granadina. Later in 1861, the country's name was changed to the United States of New Granada followed by United States of Colombia in 1863. Under the presidency of Núñez, an enactment of a conservative constitution was put forward. In 1899, five years Núñez's death, a civil war broke out in Colombia which lasted for three years. The 19th and 20th century was a period of great political unrest as different political parties led to rise and fall of subsequent governments which severely affected the economic and social stability of the country.
At different times, the country of Colombia was shrouded by thick clouds of political unrest as a result of disputes with the neighboring countries. The country of Colombia settled its border conflicts with Ecuador, and in 1934 followed by a clash with Peru over the town of Leticia, which was settled by the intervention of United Nations. Also efforts were made to form a stable government under the able leadership of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, Rojas Pinilla, Alberto Lleras Camargo, Virgilio Barco Vargas, César Gaviria Trujillo, and Ernesto Samper Pizano at different times during the past 20th century. The country of Colombia was under the severe jurisdiction of international government bodies for being the hub of illegal drug trafficking and presence of guerrilla terrorist groups. With the swearing in of Andrés Pastrana Arango in the year 1998, the country is on its way to achieving new heights of success in every possible field.
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