There are very few facts available regarding the history of Ecuador during the Pre-Inca era. The earliest evidence of human habitation in Ecuador goes back to 10,000 B.C. Prior to the Inca invasion in the 15th century many advanced and diverse indigenous cultures like Chorrera, Bahia, Tolita, Jama Coaque, Machalilla and Valdiva flourished between 12,000B.C to 1,500 A.D. The history of Ecuador is marked by the two major invasions, namely the Incas and the Spanish.
The Inca Invasion
The Incas were a dynamic, fast advancing society who dominated Peru in since the 11th century and by the mid 15th century they expanded into Ecuador. In spite of fierce resistance the Incas shortly got hold of the region aided by strong leadership and policies of intermarriage. In the early 1500s, Huayna Capac, the Inca leader had consolidated his occupation of the territory which incorporated Ecuador. Following the conquest of Ecuador, Huayna Capac indoctrinated Quechua, the language of the Incas to the tribes, and it is still widely spoken in the country. A civil war over the inheritance of the new Inca Kingdom broke out which further weakened and divided the region just before the Spanish invasion.