The Egyptian political system refers to the rules, regulation and practices, its political structure and fundamental laws, all which shows how the government, its state power and relationship between the state and society works. Egypt being a Republic with a democratic system outlines the political system and defines its public authorities.
The Constitutional System
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt, adopted in 1971 and amended in 1980, has its roots in the English Common Law and the Napoleonic Code . It declares Egypt as an Arab Republic with a democratic system .
The Head of the State is the President . Appointed by at least a one-third of the Majlis ash-Sha'ab , the People's Assembly , approved by at least two-third and elected by a popular referendum, he is elected for a time of six years and maybe re-elected for other subsequent terms. The implementation of general state policy is formulated and supervised by him. He is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Force . The last elected president of the republic was Mohammed Hosni Mubarak .
The supreme executive and administrative organ of the State is the government, consisting of the Council of Ministers . They are headed by the Prime Minister and he supervises the work of the government. The highest Executive and administrative organ of the Egyptian Republic is the Council of Ministers. The Ministers are all jointly responsible for the general policy of the State before the People's Assembly, and each Minister is responsible for the performance of his Ministry.
The Parliament has the right to withdraw confidence from the Cabinet or from any Cabinet member.
The Egyptian Parliament is bicameral in character and consists of the People's Assembly, or Majlis El-Shaab and the Advisory Council or Majlis El-Shourah.
The People's Assembly is the legislative branch of the State consisting of 444 directly elected members and 10 members appointed by the President , who serve for a term of five years . It has the power to approve the general policy, new laws, the budget and the development plans of the government. It also has the authority to undertake investigations and to levy taxes, besides appointing the Presidential candidate and passing a vote of no-confidence in the cabinet.
The Advisory Council with 140 members, out of which 70 members are nominated by the President , is Egypt's consultative council. It offers advices and consultation and proposes to the Assembly new laws and regulations.
The Egyptian Judicial System introduced into the country in 1854 and based on the English common law, Islamic law , and Napoleonic codes system is exercised through four categories of courts of justice. The highest judicial body, the Supreme Constitutional Court , the Court of Cessation , the Seven courts of Appeal in the various Governorates , and the Summary Tribunals in the districts are the principal court system in Egypt. It guarantees the independence of the judicial system.
The Party in Power
The Egyptian system is based on a Multi-party system . The Law 40 of 1977 regulates the development of political parties in Egypt. Though there is currently 17 active political parties representing various stands across the political spectrum, the law prohibits the creation of religious-based political parties in the state. Presently the National Democratic Party holds the majority of seats in the People's Assembly .
Headed by a Governor who is appointed by the President, Egypt is administratively divided into 26 Governorates . Within their districts, local government units establish and run all public utilities, provide services and designate industrial areas. Working closely at various levels with local government is the Local Popular Councils .