Geography of Ghana

Physical Features

According to the geography of Ghana, the country is situated on the west coast of Africa bordered by Burkina Faso on the north, and Côte d'Ivoire on the west and on the east by Togo. The total area covered by Ghana is 239,460 sq km, of which 230,940 sq km is occupied by land and 8,520 sq km by water. The country's 539-kilometer coastline is mainly a low, sandy shore backed by plains and scrubs, interconnected by numerous streams and rivers. Ghana's highest point is Mount Afadjato which rises to an altitude of 880m and half of the country lies below 152 meters (500 ft.) above sea level. Another feature of the geography of Ghana is Lake Volta which dominates the country's south-eastern territory, and is the largest artificial lake in the world.

People and Places

According to the 2008 census, population in Ghana has been estimated to be 22,931,299. Ghana is divided into 10 administrative regions and Accra is its capital city. Out of the 10 regions, the Greater Accra Region is the smallest yet the most populated, with the highest concentration of commercial and industrial activities. The region covers an area of 4,540 square kilometers and its natives are called Ga-Adangmes, made up of Gas, Shai, Krobos, and Adas. Accra has all the elements of a cosmopolitan city and is also the seat of the Ghana government.

The other major towns of Ghana are Kumasi and Tamale and the ports of Cape Coast, Tema and Takoradi.

Climatic Conditions

Ghana has a tropical climate with the southeast coast being comparatively warm and dry, while the southwest is hot and humid and the north is hot and dry. The climate in the northern part of the country greatly varies from that of the south. South of Ghana has two distinct rainy seasons from May to June and August to September. The Harmattan, which is a dry, northeasterly wind, blows in the months of January and February. Average annual rainfall is 83 centimeters in the coastal region of Ghana.

Natural Resources and Wildlife

The natural resources found in Ghana are gold, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, timber, fish, rubber, petroleum, hydropower, silver, limestone and salt.

There a several wildlife sanctuaries in Ghana which are Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary, Agmatsa Wildlife Sanctuary, Boaben-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Tafi Monkey Sanctuary and Keta Lagoon Complex Ramsar Site. These wildlife sanctuaries have a wide range of flora and fauna.

The Ankasa National Park in Ghana also includes exceptional botanical species like forest elephant, leopard, bongo antelope, duiker, civet cat, chimpanzee and monkeys. The bird species includes parrots, eagles, the olive green bill, glossy starling and the white-breasted guinea fowl rediscovered since 1963.


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