The political system of Ghana takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic. As a result of this the President of Ghana is both head of the state and head of the government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. The Ghanaian political system also has the government divided into three different brunches, viz the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. The seat of government is at Osu Castle, with the parliament being unicameral in nature.
The Constitutional System
The constitution of Ghana was approved on 28th April, 1992, though the country got its freedom long time back on 6th March, 1957. The constitution of Ghana's political system declares Ghana to be a unitary republic with sovereignty residing in the Ghanaian people. it calls for a system of checks and balances, with powers shared between the president, its unicameral parliament, the council of state, and its independent judiciary. The constitution stipulates the concept of power sharing.
Being a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the President is the head of the state and also the government. He is the real head of the country with all the power resting in the hands. He is elected for a term of four years by popular vote and is eligible for re-election for a second term. John Agyekum Kufuor is the ninth president of the country from the last election held on 7th December, 2004. the president also nominates members subject to approval by Parliament for the post of Council of Ministers. The Vice-president, like the president is also elected for a term of four years.
All legislative functions of Ghana's political system are vested in the Parliament. It has a unicameral house with 230 members and a Speaker. The members of the Parliament are popularly elected by Universal Adult Suffrage for a term of four years. Due to the Duverger's law, the political system of Ghana has a two-party system. Elections have been taking place every four years since 1992 alongside the Presidential election, generally on 7 December.
The judicial systems of the Ghanaian government are independent from the two other branches of government. The Supreme Court is at the apex with broad powers of judicial review. It has the power to rule on the constitutionality of any legislation or executive action at the request of any aggrieved citizen as it's authorized by the Constitution. This system of hierarchy of courts is largely derived from the British juridical system. The hierarchy is composed of the Supreme Court of Ghana, the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice, regional tribunals, and such lower courts or tribunals as Parliament may establish. jurisdiction over all civil and criminal matters is held by the court.
The Party in Power
In the Ghanaian political system two main political parties dominate. The New Patriotic Party and National Democratic Congress form the main brunches of the government.
The politics of Ghana is divided into 10 regions, Ashanti, Greater Accra, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, and Western.
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