The political system of Indonesia is a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic. Indonesia is a unitary state with power concentrated in the national government. In the Indonesian government, the powers is vested in the executive, which is exercised by the government, legislative power is vested in both the government and the two People's Representative Councils and the judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The Indonesian constitution was first written in July and August 1945 at the end of World War II but it was abolished by the Federal Constitution of 1949 and the Provisional Constitution of 1950. Finally on 5th July 1959 the constitution was restored.
The President of Indonesia is both head of state and head of government and of a multi-party system. He is also the commander-in-chief of the Indonesian armed forces, and responsible for domestic governance, policy-making and foreign affairs. The president and vice president are both selected by the vote of the citizens for a term of five years. Previously prior to 2004 they were elected by the People's Consultative Assembly. Its also the president who heads the United Indonesia Cabinet or the 'Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu' and elects the council of ministers.
In the political system of Indonesia the highest representative body at national level is the People's Consultative Assembly or the 'Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat' (MPR). MPR also has the power to impeach the President. It has two lower houses or chambers, viz the People's Representative Council or the 'Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat' (DPR) and the Regional Representatives Council or the 'Dewan Perwakilan Daerah' (DPD). The DPR has 550 members, elected for a five year term by proportional representation in multi-member constituencies and the DPD has 168 members. All legislation is passed by the legislative body DPR which also monitors the executive branch. After the 2004 election the MPR became a bicameral parliament, with the DPD as its second chamber in an effort to increase regional representation.
The highest level of judicial branch in Indonesia is the Supreme Court or the 'Mahkamah Agung'. The president appoints the judges of the Supreme Court. Besides Indonesia has a different court for different matters. All civil disputes appear first before a State Court before being heard in the High Court. There's the Commercial Court to handle bankruptcy and insolvency; a State Administrative Court to hear administrative law cases against the government; a Constitutional Court to hear disputes concerning legality of law products, dissolution of political parties, general elections and the scope of authority of a state institution; and a Religious Court to deal with specific religious cases.
The main political parties of Indonesia are the Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB, the Democratic Party or PD and the Functional Groups Party or Golkar.
Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, 4 of which have special status) including a special capital region. Each of these provinces has its own political legislature and is headed by a governor.
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