The Political System of Norway is grounded on the objectives of the parliamentary form of representative democracy. In this framework, the ruling monarch is the head of the state, while the Prime Minister enjoys the title of the head of the government. Also, Norway has a multi party system that results in coalition governments or a single party coming to power. Some of the major parliamentary parties include Norwegian Labour Party, Christian Democratic Party, Progressive Party, Liberal Party and Socialist Left Party. The existence of so many parties helps in better functioning due to the competition and oppositions that arise among the various parties.
The constitution of Norway was established on 17th May 1824 with the help of Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll. The assembly reframed it by incorporating various amendments and by making it a constitutional monarchy. The constitution endowed to the citizens various rights such as freedom of expression and freedom to practice religion. By authorizing the Universal Suffrage in 1913, it promoted the strong democratic principles that are the basis of Norway’s political structure.
Executive Branch: The reigning monarch of Norway is Harald V, belonging to the royal Glucksburg family. The king plays the ceremonial role and the Council Of State mainly practices the executive authority. The executive branch is further categorized into various Ministries. A few of them are listed below:
- Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs
- Office of the Prime Minister
- Ministry of Defense
- Ministry of Finance
- Ministry of Agriculture and Food
Since the mainland of Norway is categorized into 19 administrative units, there are governors appointed by the monarch, who handle these administrative units. Further, separate mayors handle the 434 municipalities of these administrative units.
Norway’s parliament is unicameral that comes into power through the system of proportional representation that exist in multi seat constituencies. It remains in power for a four-year period. Presently, it comprises of 165 members from the 19 administrative districts.
The Judiciary of Norway functions independently without the interference from the executive and the legislature. The Supreme Court handles all the civil and customary laws. Sometimes, even the legislature takes suggestions from the Supreme Court and works under its ICJ administration. Along with the Supreme Court, there are city courts, appeal courts and conciliation councils handling civil cases. Since the constitution amendment of 2008, the top Supreme Court Judges now manage all the impeachment cases that were earlier under the administration of the High Court.