Geography of Peru

The physical features of that form the topographical area of Peru make it a beautiful place surrounded by spreading mountain ranges and vast forest areas. Due to the unique physical features, the place enjoys a variety of climates. The major physical divisions are briefly discussed below

Amazon Basin-the Low Amazon and the High Amazon

The Low Amazon Basin lies in the eastern part of Peru, abundant with famous fertile rivers including the very popular Amazon River along with Huallaga, Maranon, Ucayali and several other streams that contribute in making the land extremely fertile. Moreover, the vast and rich forest area increases the amount and frequency of rainfall ranging from 2000 to 4000 millimeters annually. The rich bio diversity of this region and the average temperature of 28 degrees support the settlement in many significant urban areas including Pucallapa, Puerto Maldondo, Yurimaguas and Iquitos.

The High Amazon region spreads over the eastern slopes of the mountain range of Andes. Due to the topographical features, the area receives a very heavy annual rainfall that varies from 3000 to 15000mm.

Andean Mountain Range

The mountain ranges of Andes form the most magnificent landscape and contain varying climates with frequent rainfall ranging from 200 to 1500 mm, annually. While the slopes on the western side of the range are usually semi arid, the northern area of the mountains has the influence of Paramo climate.

The Coastal Region

The regions comprising the central coast of Peru are Ancash, Lima and La Libertad, which is mainly dominated by a climate that has a blend of sunís brightness with a bit of humid fog. Such a climate is referred as the Subtropical desert climate. The summer starts from January and ends in April while the humid winter stays from June to October. The southern coast also has the same kind of climate but due to certain variations the climate shows traits of Mediterranean desert climate. The southern coastal regions comprising Moquegua, Arequipa, Ica and Tacna face a dry and warm climate that has resulted in the formation of huge deserts and sand dunes.

The northern coast has an exceptionally peculiar type of climate that influences the Piura Region, Lambayeque region and Tumbes region. The climate is completely opposite of the climates dominating the other regions of the coast. The whole coastal area is rich with the tropical dry forests that contain amazing variety of trees, shrubs and wildlife. The wildlife includes iguanas, pava aliblanca, reptiles and crocodiles that add to the bio diversity of this entire coastal area. Moreover, the Mangrove forests along the Piura River, Zarumilla River, Tumbes River and Chira River also form a part of the physical features of the northern coast.


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