Political System of Peru

The political system of Peru is based on a constitutional republic with the President as the head of the state as well as the head of government. The President of Peru serves for a term of five years and is eligible to be re-elected. Every five years, the President of Peru and members of Congress are elected by universal suffrage. The present constitutional president of Peru is President Alan Garcia Perez, since 28 July 2006. The different branches of the political system of Peru are the executive, legislative and the judiciary.

The Executive

The powers of the executive are held by the President who performs the duties of the Head of State. He represents the higher interests of the country. The President conducts the government policies supported by a cabinet of 15 ministers. The cabinet consists of council of ministers, appointed by the President and headed by a Prime Minister. It is to be noted that the Prime Minister does not exercise any executive power which is solely the prerogative of the President.

The Legislative

The Legislative Branch comprises of the National Congress within one chamber comprising of 120 members. The National Congress represents the collective opinion of the nation. As the representative organ of the country, the main functions of the Congress are:

  • Representation of the people,
  • Making of the laws that rule the country
  • Oversight of the other branches of government
  • In charge of the final amendment of the Constitution

The Judiciary

The judiciary of Peru is headed by the Supreme Court of Justice which has jurisdiction over the entire nation. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary. The second hierarchic level of the judiciary is the Superior Courts. The third court of Justice is the Courts of First Instance (trial court) and the fourth hierarchic level of the Peruvian Judicial Power, are the Courts of Peace.

Major Political Parties

The major political parties of Peru are:
  • Alliance For Progress
  • Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP)
  • Union for Peru (UPP)
  • American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA)
  • Independent Moralizing Front (FIM)
  • Popular Christian Party (PPC)
  • Popular Action (AP)

 

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