Geography of Belgium

Physical Features

Belgium is situated in Western Europe covering a total area of 30,528 sq kilometers, with a land area of 30,278 sq km and 250 sq km of water. Its bordering countries include France, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The geography of Belgium is characterized by its varied landscapes consisting of rivers and gorges of the Ardennes as distinct from the rolling plains which constitute most of the countryside. The country has a coastline of 66.5 km. Belgium is divided into three main geographical regions with the coastal plain in the north-west, the central plateau and the Ardennes uplands in the south-east. The various other features of the Geography of Belgium are given below.

Population and Places

As one of the smallest countries in the continent of Europe, Belgium consists of a population of just over 10 million with a rich ethnic diversity. Among these, approximately 6 million reside in Flanders, about 3.4 million live in Wallonia, and over one million people live in Brussels, the capital of Belgium.

The most important urban areas in Belgium include Brussels, the capital city, Antwerp, the major port in Belgium, Bruges, Charleroi, Ghent and Liege. Notable features of the Belgian countryside are the historical cities, castles and churches.

Climatic Conditions

Climate in Belgium ranges from temperate and mild winters to never hot summers, rainy, humid cloudy. The summer months extend from May to September with an average daily temperature of 22° centigrade. Average winter temperature is around 4°centigrade. Rainfall in Belgium is equally distributed all through the year. Belgium experiences frequent snowfalls too. People in Belgium generally wear medium weight clothing throughout the year.

Natural hazards in Belgium include floods which pose major threats along the rivers and coastal land areas.

Natural Resources and Wildlife

Belgium does not possess an abundance of natural resources. Few of the natural resources that are available in Belgium include coal, construction materials, silica sand and carbonates.

Belgium does not have any species of wildlife which are unique to the country. Cattle and pigs are the most prevalent animals in Belgium. Much of the country's wildlife is concentrated in a sub region called Eifel in the Ardennes where endangered species like wood grouse, lynx, wild cat and amphibians can be found.


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